By Harry A. Hoffner
Hoffner and Melchert's long-awaited paintings is certain to develop into either the traditional reference grammar and the most instructing software for the Hittite language. the 1st quantity encompasses a thorough description of Hittite grammar, grounded in an abundance of textual examples. additionally, the authors have in mind an unlimited array of reports on all features of the Hittite language. within the 5 many years because the e-book of the second one version of Johannes Friedrich's Hethitisches Elementarbuch (1960), our wisdom of Hittite grammar has turn into extra precise and nuanced, in particular a result of variety of new texts to be had and the starting to be physique of secondary literature. this primary quantity within the LANE sequence fills a major hole and provides a accomplished reference for many years to come back.
the second one quantity, to be had here, is an academic that includes a sequence of graded classes with illustrative sentences for the coed to translate. the educational is keyed to the reference grammar and offers vast notes.
the published grammar quantity is observed through a CD-ROM that comprises the whole textual content of the grammar and instructional in searchable, cross-referenced, and hyperlinked shape.
Errata: Minor corrections, that have been included into the second one printings of either the Grammar and the academic (December, 2008 â€" January, 2009), can be found here for download.
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Extra info for A Grammar of the Hittite Language
In the last two cases the virtually consistent retention of the Akkadian genitive ending - on the second noun betrays its function in Akkadian as a genitive. 41. Proper names regularly bear determinatives. , river names (and names of river deities) have preﬁxed , names of springs and spring deities have preﬁxed (or ), city 32. A complete repertoire of these determinatives can be found in HZL. 42 Orthography and Phonology 24 names have preﬁxed . 33 Male and female personal names have preﬁxed signs that are rendered by superscripted m and f : (mnemonic for ‘male/masculine’ and ‘female/feminine’) mḪattušiliš, fPuduḫepaš.
47 modern scholars. The following description applies to the ancient pronunciation unless explicitly stated otherwise. The cuneiform writing system has a limited ability to express the phonemes of the Hittite language. 46. 8, p. 11) oﬀered a means of expressing vowel length, but we cannot be certain that plene writing always indicates length (as opposed to stress) or that non-plene writing always denotes short vowels. Many scholars assume the existence of both short and long vowels in Hittite, but there is no consensus on their distribution or on the phonemic status of long vowels (see Melchert 1992 and Kimball 1999, both with copious references to other views).
29): œ ‚ ˆ . 29. Exceptions: eš and iš are diﬀerent signs, as are el and il, en and in. One VC sign that can be read with any vowel is D , read aḫ, eḫ, iḫ, or uḫ. 30. Aside from the sign (aḫ, eḫ, iḫ, or uḫ), no CV or VC type sign used in Hittite fails to distinguish between vowels other than e and i. The vowel categories a — e/i — u are always kept distinct in such signs. This is in contrast to contemporary Akkadian usage, where the sign (* HZL #317), read syllabically only as wa in Hittite, has the possible readings wa, we, wi, and wu.