By William Boyce
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Extra resources for A Seat at the Table: Persons with Disabilities and Policy Making
S. Mill (Weingert 1976, Wolfe 1977). Liberalist views are reflected in the "first generation human rights" of free speech and private property, and assert that all citizens have the right to influence political decisions that affect them (Howell et al. 1987). Some authors claim that representative democracy and political parties are participatory mechanisms to implement this view (Mill 1859, 29 Theoretical Frameworks for Citizen Participation Mills 1959, Dahl 1961). Others claim that the concept of participation itself implies the breakdown of representative democracy: "At base, the demand for participation connotes criticism of the existing system of representation" (Sadler 1979).
During the International Year of Disabled Persons (1981) the federal government established the Parliamentary Special Committee on the Handicapped to prepare a series of reports entitled Obstacles (Canada Health and Welfare 1981). The committee's recommendation for the establishment of IL centres provided a basis from which consumer groups could legitimately negotiate with the government for funding (Lord and Osborne-Way 1987). The early 19805 set the scene for advocacy responsibility within the disability movement.
Rifkinetal. 1988). Social Movement Theory A second stream in social change theory that is applicable to citizen participation in policy making is contained in the literature on social movements. Social movement theory is concerned with the development, maintenance, and impact of collective organizations of social change (Hannigan 1985). Early theories of social movement focused on the emergence of social problems and the motivations of aggrieved populations and leaders in responding to these problems (Turner and Killian 1987).