By Frederick W. Alt
Advances in Immunology, a usual and hugely revered e-book, provides present advancements in addition to finished reports in immunology. Articles handle the big variety of themes that include immunology, together with molecular and mobile activation mechanisms, phylogeny and molecular evolution, and scientific modalities. Edited and authored via the major scientists within the box, each one quantity presents up to date details and instructions for destiny * Contributions from prime specialists and specialists * Informs and updates on the entire most recent advancements within the box
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Extra info for Advances in Immunology, Vol. 102
Saposins were shown to mediate loading of exogenous lipids onto human CD1b and CD1d, as well as murine CD1d molecules (Fig. 5 The role of saposins in lipid antigen loading. Lipid antigens typically localize in cellular membranes. In order to load into CD1, the lipid must be removed from a highly hydrophobic membrane and be transferred into the membrane distal antigen-binding domain of the CD1 HC. This process can be facilitated by sphingolipid activator proteins (SAPs or saposins). Saposins may operate either by partially disrupting lipid bilayers making membrane-bound lipids more accessible for loading into CD1.
Cohen et al. , 2008). Activation of iNKT cells independent of microbial lipid antigen recognition provides an elegant explanation for iNKT cell activation in response to a vast array of microbes not previously encountered by the host. 2. The CD1d-restricted T cell immune response to infection: Deployment, effector functions and regulation Rapid deployment of CD1d-restricted T cells provides these cells with the opportunity to shape both the ongoing innate responses and the ensuing adaptive ones.
1999). By 24 h postinjection, liver NK cells have undergone extensive proliferation and exhibit maximal cytotoxic activity (Eberl and MacDonald, 2000). , 2001). In the context of certain microbial infections, rapid triggering of NK cell functions can depend on iNKT cell activation. , 2006). , 2003). 4. B cell help Like CD4þ MHC-restricted T cells, activated iNKT cells can provide both non-cognate help and cognate help for B cells presenting lipid antigens in CD1d. v. , 2000). Human iNKT cells have also been reported to rapidly activate autologous naı¨ve or memory B cells, and promote their proliferation in vitro.