Albania In Transition: The Rocky Road To Democracy (Nations by Elez Biberaj

By Elez Biberaj

In early 1997, Albania’s transition to democracy suffered a major setback while pyramid schemes sparked violent unrest, plunging the rustic into its worst political and monetary drawback because the downfall of communism. The uprisings and next elections, during which the Socialist social gathering received a landslide victory, have made front-page information within the foreign neighborhood. And Albania’s proximity to the Yugoslavian melee and background of utmost radical communism make it a kingdom to watch.In Albania in Transition, Elez Biberaj presents a finished political profile of Albania for the reason that 1989. He charts Albania’s transition from one celebration to many, from a command financial system to a marketplace financial system, and its transition to a countrywide safety nation in an unpredictable, post–Cold warfare overseas defense regime.

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Expenditure limits raise many questions: whether they can be effective, whether they trigger independent expenditures and other means of avoidance, whether they tend to rigidify the system. On this latter point, expenditure limits make it difficult for candidates who have spent close to the maximum allowed, to alter their campaign strategy towards the end of a campaign in order to fend off new challenges or to take new developments into account once spending commitments have been made. Moreover, expenditure limits cause candidates to centralize control of spending in their campaigns, in order to assure that they remain within the limits, thus reducing spontaneous or decentralized spending by campaign operatives.

The West German party foundations also are involved in international activities, such as the Konrad Adenauer Foundation's work to establish cooperatives, community development projects and trade unions in Ceylon and Latin America, and the Frederic Ebert Foundation's assistance to fraternal parties in Italy and Spain. See Nassmacher in this volume, pp. 250-1. , Political Parties and Political Development (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966), pp. 177-200. 12 Khayyam Zev Paltiel, "Public Financing Abroad, Contrasts and Effects," in Michael J.

Advertising costs during the campaign amounted to £181,000, including the SDP's share of the production costs of the Alliance Party election broadcasts. Other costs included £48,000 for private opinion polling, £39,000 for leaders' tours and £130,000 for party publications (net of receipts). Campaign spending by Liberal headquarters amounted to £120,000. , donated £245,000, of which £140,000 was earmarked for Liberal candidates, £20,000 for the party leaders' tours and £57,000 for joint publicity with the SDP.

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