By M. Petrovic, et al.,
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Additional resources for Analysis, Fate and Removal of Pharmaceuticals in the Water Cycle [Comp Anal Chem Vol 50]
For more information regarding manufacturing discharges, see EPA . It is worth noting, however, that of the major chemical synthesis industries, the pharmaceutical industry produces the most waste (from by-products, catalysts, solvents, salts, and intermediates) per unit of actual product. The ratio of waste mass produced per unit of API produced ranges roughly from 25 to 100. 01. , the API itself) are many orders of magnitude lower in the pharmaceutical sector, somewhere between 1 and 1000 tons , using the E-factor approach adapted from Sheldon.
Previously unexpected sources are at times revealed. ’’ Beginning with the end-user (or end use) as the ultimate source, the principal groups are consumers, healthcare providers, hospitals, veterinarians, and those working in agriculture (including farming, CAFOs, and aquaculture). Additional but less obvious sources exist, most of which have localized impacts. Examples are the accumulation of drugs donated during humanitarian relief efforts and the cemetery burial of bodies that have received large doses of drugs (including radionuclides).
01. , the API itself) are many orders of magnitude lower in the pharmaceutical sector, somewhere between 1 and 1000 tons , using the E-factor approach adapted from Sheldon. The industry is also making continual progress in adopting green chemistry approaches in developing alternative synthesis routes for new and existing APIs. When discussing quantities of drugs manufactured or disposed, it is important to recognize that the actual API represents only a portion of the overall mass of the finished formulated drug (which includes the other ingredients composing the finished drug, namely the excipients ).