Analytical Methods in Wood Chemistry, Pulping, and by E. Sjöström (auth.), Prof. Dr. Eero Sjöström, Prof. Dr.

By E. Sjöström (auth.), Prof. Dr. Eero Sjöström, Prof. Dr. Raimo Alén (eds.)

In its broadest feel, and based on the conventional notion, wooden chemistry is a complete self-discipline, starting from basic reports to functional functions. The manifold elements, positioned in several morphological areas within the wooden, ends up in an severe complexity of wooden chemistry. Ever extra refined endeavors wanting primary reports and complicated analytical equipment are useful which will delve deeper into quite a few difficulties in pulping and papermaking. progressively, new, more desirable ana­ lytical equipment, initially constructed for study reasons, are at the moment changing some of the previous "routine" tools in useful purposes. as a result of the expanse of the topic, an try and write a e-book of this dimension approximately analytical equipment turns out, maybe, too bold. after all, an entire e-book sequence of a number of volumes will be essential to hide this subject thoroughly. in spite of the fact that, there's definitely a necessity for a extra condensed presentation which doesn't pass into experimental info, yet is restricted to the fundamental rules of the analytical tools and illustrates their applica­ tions. The emphasis is on extra complicated and capability equipment, and partic­ ularly on these in response to sorts of spectroscopy and chromatography.

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At high temperatures, strong acids dehydrate pentosans and hexosans to furfural and 5-hydroxymethyfurfural, respectively. Both products strongly absorb UV light at about 280 nm. If the reaction is carried out under controlled conditions, the absorbance is proportional to the total carbohydrate concentration of the sample. In wood-derived samples, background absorption may be caused by lignin. If the dehydration is carried out in the presence of certain color reagents, they are condensed with furfural and 5hydroxymethylfurfural, thus shifting the absorption to the visible region of light.

The best way to differentiate between juvenile and mature wood is to look at the annual rings and to measure the density of the wood. Juvenile wood has a lower density than the mature wood and its growth rings are often wide with a high proportion of earlywood. Juvenile wood can also be contaminated with relatively large amounts of compression wood. Heartwood. The center of the stem is occupied by heartwood, which is usually, but not in all species, discernible because of its darker color in comparison with sapwood.

1995). For example, strong evidence on hemicellulose-hemicellulose and hemicellulose-lignin complexes was obtained through fractionation of polysaccharides from kraft cooking liquors by precipitation followed by AEC and GPC (Fig. 6). Specific enzymes can also be used for purification of hemicellulose mixtures. Depolymerization of the contaminating glycan backbones with endoglycanases, followed by GPC offers a convenient way, for example, to purify mixtures of galactoglucomannans and xylans. However, enzymes need to be applied with care to unknown samples because any information on rare structures and bonding between polysaccharide chains is easily lost (Tamminen et al.

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