By M Auty Affiliation: Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, County Cork, Ireland
Polarized mild micrograph of evaporated milk, exhibiting attribute tomahawk-shaped α-lactose monohydrate crystals (arrow). Scale = 25 μm. summary: Polarized mild micrograph of evaporated milk, displaying attribute tomahawk-shaped α-lactose monohydrate crystals (arrow). Scale = 25 μm
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Additional info for Analytical Methods | Microscopy (Microstructure of Milk Constituents and Products)
For a few degrees below the melting point, the melt exists in a metastable region. In this region, molecules begin to aggregate into tiny clusters called embryos. At these low degrees of undercooling, embryos continuously form and breakdown, but do not persist to form stable nuclei. The energy of interaction between TAG molecules has to be greater than the thermal energy of the molecules in the melt (kBT) so as to overcome Brownian effects. For these flexible molecules, it is not sufficient to interact; molecules have to adopt a specific conformation in order to form a stable nucleus.
Being closer in nature to the liquid state, the α form of TAGs has a lower surface free energy, or crystal–melt interfacial tension. This, in turn will lead to a lower free energy of nucleation, and thus a higher nucleation rate. The crystal–melt surface free energy is the main factor responsible for the metastable nucleation behavior of triacylglycerols and fats. This effect must be enormous. For an α-form at a particular temperature, the degree of undercooling (ΔT), melting enthalpy (ΔHf ), and melting temperature (Tf ) are lower, and the molar volume (Vm) is higher (lower density), than for more stable crystal forms.
In order to visualize the packing of the acyl chains within the unit cell, a section perpendicular to the chain axis is required. 21). This figure corresponds to the triclinic subcell of trilaurin determined by Vand and Bell (1951). Methyl and carboxyl groups are not included in the subcell lattice. Ethylene is the smallest unit within the hydrocarbon chain which constitutes a three-dimensional entity. 22 depict the way in which ethylene groups within the long hydrocarbon chains are arranged relative to each other, shown here for the three major polymorphs found in TAGs.