By Jacky Turner
The decision of while, how, how usually and with whom an animal breeds is relocating swiftly clear of evolutionary pressures and in the direction of human reasons: those contain the breeding of round 50 billion mammals and birds for nutrition construction every year, the breeding of pedigree canine and cats, racing canines and horses, specialized laboratory animal lines and using reproductive technology to preserve endangered species or breeds and to restrict undesirable populations of pests and non-native species. however the ethics and sustainability of this takeover of animals' reproductive lives were insufficiently tested through both execs or the general public. This e-book discusses the equipment, the motivations and the results of human intervention in animal breeding when it comes to animal overall healthiness, behaviour and health. It explores the place we're now and the alternatives forward, and appears to a destiny the place we've extra appreciate for animals as sentient beings and the place shall we loosen the reins of reproductive keep an eye on.
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If she fails to become pregnant again after her piglets are removed, she may not be given a second chance. 25,28,29 The ‘cull sows’ are typically fattened and sold for lower-grade meat. 4 Selection of cattle for meat or milk production Selection for production purposes has created striking visual differences between the Holstein, a breed selected for milk production and a breed such as the Charolais or the Limousin, selected for beef production. The Holstein cow is tall with slender legs and very little visible muscling; she is often very bony around the rump and tail head, indicating that she is not designed for meat.
The focus of breeders’ efforts is in two broad areas, both of which are designed to cut production costs to the farmer and hence lower prices to the consumer. One is to increase the rate of reproduction. Depending on the species involved, this essentially means increasing the number of surviving offspring and minimizing the time between successive cycles of reproduction. The second area covers all the ways in which the animal’s body can increase its productivity in terms of meat, milk or egg production.
23 Geneticists are currently searching for genes associated with higher numbers of teats in pigs. The companies who produce breeding sows and boars emphasize the productivity and cost effectiveness of their products in their brand names, such as the Genepacker range of female lines and the Geneconverter and Titan sire lines. Geneconverter700 has the ‘lowest feed conversion rates achieved by any pig, anywhere in the world’ and ‘goes to war on feed costs’. He promises an extra profitability of nearly UK£10,000 compared to the average pig herd, per 100 sows, and has an ‘extremely high libido’.