Annual Review of Psychology, vol 54 2003 by Susan T. Fiske, Daniel L. Schacter, Carolyn Zahn-Waxler

By Susan T. Fiske, Daniel L. Schacter, Carolyn Zahn-Waxler

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For personal use only. Sensitization of Drug Reward Pursuit More direct evidence for our hypothesis that neural sensitization increases the “wanting” for drug rewards comes from studies that quantify the pursuit of drugs and other rewards. For example, many studies using operant techniques have shown that sensitization decreases the threshold dose necessary for rats to learn to selfadminister drugs and facilitates how quickly they learn (Piazza et al. 1989, 1990; Horger et al. 1990, 1992; Valadez & Schenk 1994; Pierre & Vezina 1998).

Psychol. 54:25-53. org by Ball State University on 01/05/09. For personal use only. sgm LaTeX2e(2002/01/18) P1: FHD BERRIDGE Figure 1 Opponent process model of addiction. According to the opponent process theory the affective (hedonic or emotional) response to a stimulus (a drug in this case) is the underlying a-process, which in turn elicits the opponent b-process (bottom). The underlying processes add together to cause the initial pleasant A-state, which is actually experienced, followed by an opponent unpleasant B-state.

54:25-53. org by Ball State University on 01/05/09. For personal use only. sgm LaTeX2e(2002/01/18) P1: FHD BERRIDGE for sensitization last a proportional length of time as in rats, it could amount to most of a lifetime. Another important feature of sensitization for addiction concerns individual differences in susceptibility to sensitization. Some individuals sensitize readily, whereas others are more resistant. That may help explain why only some drug users become addicts. , in addition to individualized patterns of drug exposure (Robinson 1988).

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